A line for each article is displayed in the summary buffer. You can move around, read articles, post articles and reply to articles.
Gnus will use the value of the
variable as a function for getting the name and address parts of a
From header. Two pre-defined function exist:
gnus-extract-address-components, which is the default, quite
fast, and too simplistic solution, and
mail-extract-address-components, which works very nicely, but is
gnus-summary-same-subject is a string indicating that the current
article has the same subject as the previous. This string will be used
with those specs that require it.
You can change the format of the lines in the summary buffer by changing
gnus-summary-line-format variable. It works along the same
lines a a normal
format string, with some extensions.
The default string is `"%U%R%z%I%(%[%4L: %-20,20n%]%) %s\n"'.
The following format specification characters are understood:
Fromheader). This differs from the
nspec in that it uses
gnus-extract-address-components, which is slower, but may be more thorough.
Fromheader). This works the same way as the
gnus-summary-default-leveland the score is less than
gnus-summary-zcore-fuzz, this spec will not be used.
gnus-user-format-function-`X', where `X' is the letter following `%u'. The function will be passed the current header as argument. The function should return a string, which will be inserted into the summary just like information from any other summary specifier.
Text between `%(' and `%)' will be highlighted with
gnus-mouse-face when the mouse point is placed inside the area.
There can only be one such area.
The `%U' (status), `%R' (replied) and `%z' (zcore) specs have to be handled with care. For reasons of efficiency, Gnus will compute what column these characters will end up in, and "hard-code" that. This means that it is illegal to have these specs after a variable-length spec. Well, you might not be arrested, but your summary buffer will look strange, which is bad enough.
The smart choice is to have these specs as far to the left as possible. (Isn't that the case with everything, though? But I digress.)
This restriction may disappear in later versions of Gnus.
You can also change the format of the summary mode bar. Set
gnus-summary-mode-line-format to whatever you like. Here are the
elements you can play with:
All the straight movement commands understand the numeric prefix and behave pretty much as you'd expect.
None of these commands select articles.
If you are at the end of the group and issue one of the movement
commands, Gnus will offer to go to the next group. If
t and the next group is empty,
Gnus will exit summary mode and return to the group buffer. If this
variable is neither
nil, Gnus will select the next
group, no matter whether it has any unread articles or not. As a
special case, if this variable is
quietly, Gnus will select the
next group without asking for confirmation. Also See section Group Levels.
If Gnus asks you to press a key to confirm going to the next group, you can use the C-n and C-p keys to move around the group buffer, searching for the next group to read without actually returning to the group buffer.
gnus-auto-select-same is non-
nil, all the movement
commands will try to go to the next article with the same subject as the
current. This variable is not particularly useful if you use a threaded
gnus-summary-check-current is non-
nil, all the "unread"
movement commands will not proceed to the next (or previous) article if
the current article is unread. Instead, they will choose the current
gnus-auto-center-summary is non-
nil, Gnus will keep the
point in the summary buffer centered at all times. This makes things
quite tidy, but if you have a slow network connection, or simply do not
like this un-Emacsism, you can set this variable to
nil to get
the normal Emacs scrolling action.
None of the following movement commands understand the numeric prefix, and they all select and display an article.
gnus-summary-pop-article). This command differs from the command above in that you can pop as many previous articles off the history as you like.
Some variables that are relevant for moving and selecting articles:
nil. Gnus will then fetch the article from the server and display it in the article buffer.
(FORM . FACE). If you would, for instance, like ticked articles to be italic and high-scored articles to be bold, you could set this variable to something like
(((eq mark gnus-ticked-mark) . italic) ((> score default) . bold))As you may have guessed, if FORM returns a non-
nilvalue, FACE will be applied to the line.
All the commands for posting and mailing will put you in a post or mail buffer where you can edit the article all you like, before you send the article by pressing C-c C-c. If you are in a foreign news group, and you wish to post the article using the foreign server, you can give a prefix to C-c C-c to make Gnus try to post using the foreign server.
Commands for composing a mail message:
gnus-summary-reply-with-original). This command uses the process/prefix convention.
gnus-uu-digest-mail-forward). This command uses the process/prefix convention (see section Process/Prefix).
Variables for customizing outgoing mail:
(setq gnus-reply-to-function (lambda (group) (cond ((string= group "mail.stupid-list") (mail-fetch-field "sender")) (t nil))))This function will be called narrowed to the head of the article that is being replied to. As you can see, this function should return a string if it has an opinion as to what the To header should be. If it does not, it should just return
nil, and the normal methods for determining the To header will be used. This function can also return a list. In that case, each list element should be a cons, where the car should be the name of an header (eg. `Cc') and the cdr should be the header value (eg. `firstname.lastname@example.org'). All these headers will be inserted into the head of the outgoing mail.
send-mail-functionvariable as the default.
There are three "methods" for handling all mail. The default is
sendmail. Some people like what
mh does better, and some
Three variables for customizing what to use when:
Commands for posting an article:
gnus-summary-followup-with-original). This command uses the process/prefix convention.
gnus-required-headers a list of header symbols. These headers
will either be automatically generated, or, if that's impossible, they
will be prompted for. The following symbols are legal:
gnus-inews-user-namefunction, which depends on the
gnus-organization-filewill be used if that variable is nil.
In addition, you can enter conses into this list. The car of this cons
should be a symbol who's name is the name of the header, and the cdr can
either a string to be entered verbatim as the value of this header, or
it can be a function to be called. This function should return a string
to be inserted. For instance, if you want to insert `Mime-Version:
1.0', you should enter
(Mime-Version . "1.0") into the list. If
you want to insert a funny quote, you could enter something like
(X-Yow . yow) into the list. The function
yow will then
be called without any arguments.
Other variables for customizing outgoing articles:
nil, Gnus will use this method instead of the default select method when posting.
nil, this variable will override
mail-default-headerswhen posting. This variable should then be a string. This string will be inserted, as is, in the head of all outgoing articles.
nil, always ignore the Followup-To header. If it is
t, use its value, but ignore the special value `poster', which will send the followup as a reply mail to the person you are responding to. If it is the symbol
ask, query the user before posting. If it is the symbol
use, always use the value.
(setq gnus-followup-to-function (lambda (group) (cond ((string= group "mail.stupid-list") (mail-fetch-field "sender")) (t nil))))This function will be called narrowed to header of the article that is being followed up.
Xref, so these headers are deleted if they are present in this list of symbols.
*post-buf*buffer, edit the
Newsgroupsline, and ship it off again. By default, this variable makes sure that the old generated
Message-IDis deleted, and a new one generated. If this isn't done, the entire empire would probably crumble, anarchy would prevail, and cats would start walking on two legs and rule the world. Allegedly.
nil, this variable should be a function that returns a signature file name. The function will be called with the name of the group being posted to. If the function returns a string that doesn't correspond to a file, the string itself is inserted. If the function returns
gnus-signature-filevariable will be used instead.
gnus-inews-insert-signatureinto this hook.
(defvar news-reply-header-hook (lambda () (insert "In article " news-reply-yank-message-id " " news-reply-yank-from " writes:\n\n")))This will create lines like:
In article <email@example.com> Lars Mars <firstname.lastname@example.org> writes:Having the
Message-Idin this line is probably overkill, so I would suggest this hook instead:
(setq news-reply-header-hook (lambda () (insert news-reply-yank-from " writes:\n\n")))
*post-news*buffer, narrowed to the head, and is intended for people who would like to insert additional headers, or just change headers in some way or other.
nil, Gnus will attempt to check the legality of the headers, as well as some other stuff, before posting. You can control the granularity of the check by adding or removing elements from this list. Legal elemetents are:
Fromheader seems nice.
Commands for sending mail and post at the same time:
gnus-summary-followup-and-reply-with-original). This command uses the process/prefix convention.
Here's a list of variables that are relevant to both mailing and posting:
nil, it should be the name of a file containing a signature (`~/.signature' by default). This signature will be appended to all outgoing post. Most people find it more convenient to use
mail-signature, which (sort of) does the same, but inserts the signature into the buffer before you start editing the post (or mail). So - if you have both of these variables set, you will get two signatures. Note that
mail-signaturedoes not work the same way as
gnus-signature-file, which is a bit confusing. If
t, it will insert `~/.signature'. If it is a string, this string will be inserted. Note that RFC1036 says that a signature should be preceded by the three characters `-- ' on a line by themselves. This is to make it easier for the recipient to automatically recognize and process the signature. So don't remove those characters, even though you might feel that they ruin you beautiful design, like, totally. Also note that no signature should be more than four lines long. Including ASCII graphics is an efficient way to get everybody to believe that you are silly and have nothing important to say.
mail-yank-prefixprepended to it. This is ` ' by default, which isn't very pretty. Most everybody prefers that lines are prepended with `> ', so
(setq mail-yank-prefix "> ")in your `.emacs' file.
(setq mail-yank-ignored-headers ":").
nil, Gnus will use
user-mail-addressas the address part of the
nil. Here are two example values of this variable: `"email@example.com (Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen)"' and `"Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen <firstname.lastname@example.org>"'. The latter version is recommended, but the name has to be quoted if it contains non-alpha-numerical characters - `"\"Lars M. Ingebrigtsen\" <email@example.com>"'.
nil, that variable will override this one when posting articles.
ask, you will be prompted for whether you want to send a mail copy to the author of the article you are following up. If non-
ask, Gnus will send a mail with a copy of all follow-ups to the authors of the articles you follow up. It's nice in one way - you make sure that the person you are responding to gets your response. Other people loathe this method and will hate you dearly for it, because it means that they will first get a mail, and then have to read the same article later when they read the news. It is
You may want to do spell-checking on messages that you send out. Or, if
you don't want to spell-check by hand, you could add automatic
spell-checking via the
(add-hook 'news-inews-hook 'ispell-message) ;For news posts (add-hook 'mail-send-hook 'ispell-message) ;for mail posts via sendmail
If you want to insert some MIME headers into the articles you post,
without doing any actual encoding, you could add
Have you ever written something, and then decided that you really, really, really wish you hadn't posted that?
Well, you can't cancel mail, but you can cancel posts.
Find the article you wish to cancel (you can only cancel your own
articles, so don't try any funny stuff). Then press C or S
gnus-summary-cancel-article). Your article will be
canceled - machines all over the world will be deleting your article.
Be aware, however, that not all sites honor cancels, so your article may live on here and there, while most sites will delete the article in question.
If you discover that you have made some mistakes and want to do some corrections, you can post a superseding article that will replace your original article.
Go to the original article and press S s
gnus-summary-supersede-article). You will be put in a buffer
where you can edit the article all you want before sending it off the
You probably want to delete some of the old headers before sending the
superseding article -
Date are probably
gnus-delete-supersedes-headers to a regexp to
match the lines you want removed. The default is
The same goes for superseding as for canceling, only more so: Some sites do not honor superseding. On those sites, it will appear that you have posted almost the same article twice.
If you have just posted the article, and change your mind right away,
there is a trick you can use to cancel/supersede the article without
waiting for the article to appear on your site first. You simply return
to the post buffer (which is called
*post-buf*). There you will
find the article you just posted, with all the headers intact. Change
the `Message-ID' header to a `Cancel' or `Supersedes'
header by substituting one of those words for `Message-ID'. Then
just press C-c C-c to send the article as you would do normally.
The previous article will be canceled/superseded.
Just remember, kids: There is no 'c' in 'supersede'.
There are several marks you can set on an article.
You have marks that decide the readed-ness (whoo, neato-keano neologism ohoy!) of the article. Alphabetic marks generally mean read, while non-alphabetic characters generally mean unread.
In addition, you also have marks that do not affect readedness.
The following marks mark articles as unread, in one form or other.
gnus-ticked-mark) in the first column.
gnus-dormant-mark), and will only appear in the summary buffer if there are followups to it.
gnus-unread-mark). These are articles that haven't been read at all yet.
All the following marks mark articles as read.
gnus-del-mark) in the first column. These are articles that the user has marked as read more or less manually.
All these marks just mean that the article is marked as read, really. They are interpreted differently by the adaptive scoring scheme, however.
One more special mark, though:
There are some marks that have nothing to do with whether the article is read or not.
You can set a bookmark in the current article. Say you are reading a long thesis on cat's urinary tracts, and have to go home for dinner before you've finished reading the thesis. You can then set a bookmark in the article, and Gnus will jump to this bookmark the next time it encounters the article.
All articles that you have replied to or made a followup to (i.e., have
answered) will be marked with an `A' in the second column
It the `%e' spec is used, the presence of threads or not will be
Finally we have the process mark (
variety of commands react to the presence of the process mark. For
instance, X u (
gnus-uu-decode-uu) will uudecode and view
all articles that have been marked with the process mark. Articles
marked with the process mark have a `#' in the second column.
All the marking commands understand the numeric prefix.
gnus-summary-goto-unread variable controls what action should
be taken after setting a mark. If non-
nil, point will move to
the next/previous unread article. If
nil, point will just move
one line up or down.
Gnus threads articles by default. To thread is to put replies to articles directly after the articles they reply to - in a hierarchical fashion.
nil, no threading will be done, and all of the rest of the variables here will have no effect. Turning threading off will speed group selection up a bit, but it is sure to make reading slower and more awkward.
nil, Gnus will attempt to build old threads by fetching more old headers - headers to articles that are marked as read. If you would like to display as few summary lines as possible, but still connect as many loose threads as possible, you should set this variable to
some. In either case, fetching old headers only works if the backend you are using carries overview files -- this would normally be
nnml. Also remember that if the root of the thread has been expired by the server, there's not much Gnus can do about that.
nil, Gnus requires an exact match between the subjects of the loose threads before gathering them into one big super-thread. This might be too strict a requirement, what with the presence of stupid newsreaders that chop off long subjects lines. If you think so, set this variable to, say, 20 to require that only the first 20 characters of the subjects have to match. If you set this variable to a real low number, you'll find that Gnus will gather everything in sight into one thread, which isn't very helpful. If you set this variable to the special value
fuzzy, Gnus will use a fuzzy string comparison algorithm on the subjects.
nil, Gnus will gather all loose subtrees into one big tree and create a dummy root at the top. (Wait a minute. Root at the top? Yup.) Loose subtrees occur when the real root has expired, or you've read or killed the root in a previous session. When there is no real root of a thread, Gnus will have to fudge something. This variable says what fudging method Gnus should use. There are four possible values:
gnus-summary-same-subjectas the subject (see section Summary Buffer Format).)
nil, all threads will be hidden when the summary buffer is generated.
nil, the subtree will be hidden.
nil, the subject change is ignored. If it is
nil, which is the default, a change in the subject will result in a new thread.
gnus-summary-kill-thread). If the prefix argument is positive, remove all marks instead. If the prefix argument is negative, tick articles instead.
The following commands are thread movement commands. They all understand the numeric prefix.
If you read your news from an NNTP server that's far away, the network latencies may make reading articles a chore. You have to wait for a while after pressing n to go to the next article before the article appears. Why can't Gnus just go ahead and fetch the article while you are reading the previous one? Why not, indeed.
First, some caveats. There are some pitfalls to using asynchronous article fetching, especially the way Gnus does it.
Let's say you are reading article 1, which is short, and article 2 is quite long, and you are not interested in reading that. Gnus does not know this, so it goes ahead and fetches article 2. You decide to read article 3, but since Gnus is in the process of fetching article 2, the connection is blocked.
To avoid these situations, Gnus will open two (count 'em two) connections to the server. Some people may think this isn't a very nice thing to do, but I don't see any real alternatives. Setting up that extra connection takes some time, so Gnus startup will be slower.
Gnus will fetch more articles than you will read. This will mean that the link between your machine and the NNTP server will become more loaded than if you didn't use article pre-fetch. The server itself will also become more loaded - both with the extra article requests, and the extra connection.
Ok, so now you know that you shouldn't really use this thing... unless you really want to.
Here's how: Set
t. The rest should
You can control how many articles that are to be pre-fetched by setting
nntp-async-number. This is five by default, which means that when
you read an article in the group,
nntp will pre-fetch the next
five articles. If this variable is
nntp will pre-fetch
all the articles that it can without bound. If it is
pre-fetching will be made.
You may wish to create some sort of scheme for choosing which articles
nntp should consider as candidates for pre-fetching. For
instance, you may wish to pre-fetch all articles with high scores, and
not pre-fetch low-scored articles. You can do that by setting the
gnus-asynchronous-article-function, which will be called with an
alist where the keys are the article numbers. Your function should
return an alist where the articles you are not interested in have been
removed. You could also do sorting on article score and the like.
If you have an extremely slow NNTP connection, you may consider turning article caching on. Each article will then be stored locally under your home directory. As you may surmise, this could potentially use huge amounts of disk space, as well as eat up all your inodes so fast it will make your head swim. In vodka.
Used carefully, though, it could be just an easier way to save articles.
To turn caching on, set
t. By default,
all articles that are ticked or marked as dormant will then be copied
over to your local cache (
gnus-cache-directory). Whether this
cache is flat or hierarchal is controlled by the
gnus-use-long-file-name variable, as usual.
When re-select a ticked or dormant article, it will be fetched from the cache instead of from the server. As articles in your cache will never expire, this might serve as a method of saving articles while still keeping them where they belong. Just mark all articles you want to save as dormant, and don't worry.
When an article is marked as read, is it removed from the cache.
The entering/removal of articles from the cache is controlled by the
variables. Both are lists of symbols. The first is
dormant) by default, meaning that ticked and dormant articles will be
put in the cache. The latter is
(read) by default, meaning that
articles that are marked as read are removed from the cache. Possibly
symbols in these two lists are
So where does the massive article-fetching and storing come into the
gnus-jog-cache command will go through all
subscribed newsgroups, request all unread articles, and store them in
the cache. You should only ever, ever ever ever, use this command if 1)
your connection to the NNTP server is really, really, really slow
and 2) you have a really, really, really huge disk. Seriously.
Exiting from the summary buffer will normally update all info on the group and return you to the group buffer.
gnus-summary-prepare-exit-hookis called before doing much of the exiting, and calls
gnus-summary-exit-hookis called after finishing the exiting process.
gnus-summary-reselect-current-group). If given a prefix, select all articles, both read and unread.
gnus-summary-rescan-group). If given a prefix, select all articles, both read and unread.
gnus-exit-group-hook is called when you exit the current
The data on the current group will be updated (which articles you have
read, which articles you have replied to, etc.) when you exit the
summary buffer. If the
gnus-use-cross-reference variable is
t, articles that are cross-referenced to this group and are
marked as read, will also be marked as read in the other subscribed
groups they were cross-posted to. If this variable is neither
t, the article will be marked as read in both
subscribed and unsubscribed groups.
Marking cross-posted articles as read ensures that you'll never have to read the same article more than once. Unless, of course, somebody has posted it to several groups separately. Posting the same article to several groups (not cross-posting) is called spamming, and you are by law required to send nasty-grams to anyone who perpetrates such a heinous crime.
Remember: Cross-posting is kinda ok, but posting the same article separately to several groups is not.
One thing that may cause Gnus to not do the cross-posting thing
correctly is if you use an NNTP server that supports XOVER
(which is very nice, because it speeds things up considerably) which
does not include the
Xref header in its NOV lines. This is
Evil, but all too common, alas, alack. Gnus tries to Do The Right Thing
even with XOVER by registering the
Xref lines of all
articles you actually read, but if you kill the articles, or just mark
them as read without reading them, Gnus will not get a chance to snoop
Xref lines out of these articles, and will be unable to use
the cross reference mechanism.
If you want Gnus to get the
Xrefs right all the time, you have to
t, which slows things down
C'est la vie.
Many functions, among them functions for moving, decoding and saving articles, use what is known as the Process/Prefix convention.
This is a method for figuring out what articles that the user wants the command to be performed on.
It goes like this:
If the numeric prefix is N, perform the operation on the next N articles, starting with the current one. If the numeric prefix is negative, perform the operation on the previous N articles, starting with the current one.
If there is no numeric prefix, but some articles are marked with the process mark, perform the operation on the articles that are marked with the process mark.
If there is neither a numeric prefix nor any articles marked with the process mark, just perform the operation on the current article.
Quite simple, really, but it needs to be made clear so that surprises are avoided.
Gnus can save articles in a number of ways. Below is the documentation
for saving articles in a fairly straight-forward fashion (i.e., little
processing of the article is done before it is saved). For a different
approach (uudecoding, unsharing) you should use
(see section Decoding Articles).
gnus-save-all-headers is non-
nil, Gnus will not delete
unwanted headers before saving the article.
All these commands use the process/prefix convention (see section Process/Prefix).
You can customize the
gnus-default-article-saver variable to make
Gnus do what you want it to. You can use any of the four ready-made
functions below, or you can create your own.
gnus-rmail-save-namevariable to get a file name to save the article in. The default is
gnus-mail-save-namevariable to get a file name to save the article in. The default is
gnus-file-save-namevariable to get a file name to save the article in. The default is
rcvstorefrom the MH library.
All of these functions, except for the last one, will save the article
gnus-article-save-directory, which is initialized from the
`SAVEDIR' environment variable.
As you can see above, the functions use different functions to find a suitable name of a file to save the article in. Below is a list of available functions that generate names:
Finally, you have the
gnus-use-long-file-name variable. If it is
nil, all the preceding functions will replace all periods
(`.') in the group names with slashes (`/') - which means that
the functions will generate hierarchies of directories instead of having
all the files in the toplevel directory
(`~/News/alt/andrea-dworkin' instead of
This function also affects kill and score file names. If this variable
is a list, and the list contains the element
not-score, long file
names will not be used for score files, if it contains the element
not-save, long file names will not be used for saving, and if it
contains the element
not-kill, long file names will not be used
for kill files.
If you'd like to save articles in a hierarchy that looks something like a spool, you could
(setq gnus-use-long-file-name '(not-save)) ; to get a hierarchy (setq gnus-default-article-save 'gnus-summary-save-in-file) ; no encoding
Then just save with o. You'd then read this hierarchy with
nneething groups - G D in the group buffer, and
the toplevel directory as the argument (`~/News/'). Then just walk
around to the groups/directories with
Sometime users post articles (or series of articles) that have been encoded in some way or other. Gnus can decode them for you.
All these functions use the process/prefix convention (see section Process/Prefix) for finding out what articles to work on, with the extension that a "single article" means "a single series". Gnus can find out by itself what articles belong to a series, decode all the articles and unpack/view/save the resulting file(s).
Gnus guesses what articles are in the series according to the following simplish rule: The subjects must be (nearly) identical, except for the last two numbers of the line. (Spaces are largely ignored, however.)
For example: If you choose a subject called `cat.gif (2/3)', Gnus will find all the articles that match the regexp `^cat.gif ([0-9]+/[0-9]+).*$'.
Subjects that are nonstandard, like `cat.gif (2/3) Part 6 of a series', will not be properly recognized by any of the automatic viewing commands, and you have to mark the articles manually with #.
Remember that these all react to the presence of articles marked with
the process mark. If, for instance, you'd like to uncode and save an
entire newsgroup, you'd typically do M P a
gnus-uu-mark-all) and then X U
All this is very much different from how
gnus-uu worked with
GNUS 4.1, where you had explicit keystrokes for everything under
the sun. This version of
gnus-uu generally assumes that you mark
articles in some way (see section Setting Process Marks) and then press
Note: When trying to decode articles that have names matching
gnus-uu-notify-files, which is hard-coded to
automatically post an article on `comp.unix.wizards' saying that
you have just viewed the file in question. This feature can't be turned
Adjective, not verb.
Gnus uses rule variables to decide how to view a file. All these variables are on the form
(list '(regexp1 command2) '(regexp2 command2) ...)
soxto convert an `.au' sound file, you could say something like:
(setq gnus-uu-user-view-rules (list '(\"\\\\.au$\" \"sox %s -t .aiff > /dev/audio\")))
gnus-uuis not a MIME package (yet), so this is slightly kludgey.
gnus-uudoes its work.
gnus-uuwon't peek inside archives looking for files to display.
nilmeans that the user will always be asked to save a file after viewing it.
gnus-uuwill ignore the default viewing rules.
gnus-uuwill ignore the default archive unpacking commands.
gnus-uuwill strip all carriage returns from articles.
gnus-uuwill mark articles that were unsuccessfully decoded as unread.
gnus-uuwill try to fix uuencoded files that have had trailing spaces deleted.
gnus-uuwill ignore the viewing commands defined by the rule variables and just fudge a MIME content type based on the file name. The result will be fed to
gnus-uu, when asked to save without decoding, will save in digests. If this variable is
gnus-uuwill just save everything in a file without any embellishments. The digesting almost conforms to RFC1153 - no easy way to specify any meaningful volume and issue numbers were found, so I simply dropped them.
gnus-uuwill ask for a file to encode before you compose the article. If this variable is
t, you can either include an encoded file with C-c C-i or have one included for you when you post the article.
gnus-uuwill post the encoded file in a thread. This may not be smart, as no other decoder I have seen are able to follow threads when collecting uuencoded articles. (Well, I have seen one package that does that -
gnus-uu, but somehow, I don't think that counts...) Default is
nilmeans that the description will be posted in a separate article. The first article will typically be numbered (0/x). If this variable is
nil, the description the user enters will be included at the beginning of the first article, which will be numbered (1/x). Default is
After decoding, if the file is some sort of archive, Gnus will attempt to unpack the archive and see if any of the files in the archive can be viewed. For instance, if you have a gzipped tar file `pics.tar.gz' containing the files `pic1.jpg' and `pic2.gif', Gnus will uncompress and detar the main file, and then view the two pictures. This unpacking process is recursive, so if the archive contains archives of archives, it'll all be unpacked.
Finally, Gnus will normally insert a pseudo-article for each extracted file into the summary buffer. If you go to these "articles", you will be prompted for a command to run (usually Gnus will make a suggestion), and then the command will be run.
nil, Emacs will wait
until the viewing is done before proceeding.
automatic, Gnus will not insert
the pseudo-articles into the summary buffer, but view them
immediately. If this variable is
not-confirm, the user won't even
be asked for a confirmation before viewing is done.
gnus-view-pseudos-separately is non-
pseudo-article will be created for each file to be viewed. If
nil, all files that use the same viewing command will be given as
a list of parameters to that command.
So; there you are, reading your pseudo-articles in your virtual newsgroup from the virtual server; and you think: Why isn't anything real anymore? How did we get here?
gnus-summary-show-article). If given a prefix, don't actually refetch any articles, just jump to the current article and configure the windows to display the current article.
There's a battery of commands for washing the article buffer:
gnus-article-display-x-face). The command executed by this function is given by the
gnus-article-x-face-commandvariable. If this variable is a string, this string will be executed in a sub-shell. If it is a function, this function will be called with the face as the argument. If the
gnus-article-x-face-too-ugly(which is a regexp) matches the
Fromheader, the face will not be shown.
You can have the summary buffer sorted in various ways, even though I can't really see why you'd want that.
These functions will work both when you use threading and when you don't use threading. In the latter case, all summary lines will be sorted, line by line. In the former case, sorting will be done on a root-by-root basis, which might not be what you were looking for. To toggle whether to use threading, type T T (see section Thread Commands).
If you'd like to read the parent of the current article, and it is not
displayed in the article buffer, you might still be able to. That is,
if the current group is fetched by NNTP, the parent hasn't expired
References in the current article are not mangled, you
can just press ^ or A r
gnus-summary-refer-parent-article). If everything goes well,
you'll get the parent. If the parent is already displayed in the
summary buffer, point will just move to this article.
You can also ask the NNTP server for an arbitrary article, no
matter what group it belongs to. M-^
gnus-summary-refer-article) will ask you for a
Message-Id, which is one of those long thingies that look
something like `<firstname.lastname@example.org>'. You have to get
it all exactly right. No fuzzy searches, I'm afraid.
If the group you are reading is located on a backend that does not
support fetching by
Message-Id very well (like
you can set
gnus-refer-article-method to an NNTP method. It
would, perhaps, be best if the NNTP server you consult is the same
as the one that keeps the spool you are reading from updated, but that's
not really necessary.
Other people use kill files, but we here at Gnus Towers like scoring better than killing, so we'd rather switch than fight. They do something completely different as well, so sit up straight and pay attention!
All articles have a default score (
This score may be raised or lowered either interactively or by score
files. Articles that have a score lower than
gnus-summary-mark-below are marked as read.
Gnus will read any score files that apply to the current group before generating the summary buffer.
There are several commands in the summary buffer that insert score entries based on the current article. You can, for instance, ask Gnus to lower or increase the score of all articles with a certain subject.
There are two sorts of scoring entries: Permanent and temporary. Temporary score entries are self-expiring entries. Any entries that are temporary and have not been used for, say, a week, will be removed silently to help keep the sizes of the score files down.
The score commands that alter score entries do not actually modify real score files. That would be too inefficient. Gnus maintains a cache of previously loaded score files, one of which is considered the current score file alist. The score commands simply insert entries into this list, and upon group exit, this list is saved.
The current score file is by default the group's local score file, even if no such score file actually exists. To insert score commands into some other score file (eg. `all.SCORE'), you must first make this score file the current one.
General score commands that don't actually change the score file:
gnus-score-edit-alist). You will be popped into a
gnus-score-modebuffer (see section Score File Editing).
The rest of these commands modify the local score file.
The keystrokes for actually making score entries follow a very regular pattern, so there's no need to list all the commands. (Hundreds of them.)
So, let's say you want to increase the score on the current author with exact matching permanently: I a e p. If you want to lower the score based on the subject line, using substring matching, and make a temporary score entry: L s s t. Pretty easy.
To make things a bit more complicated, there are shortcuts. If you use a capital letter on either the second or third keys, Gnus will use defaults for the remaining one or two keystrokes. The defaults are "substring" and "temporary". So I A is the same as I a s t, and I a R is the same as I a r t.
gnus-score-mimic-keymap says whether these commands will
pretend they are keymaps or not.
nil, Gnus will not check for score files, and will not, in general, do any score-related work.
nil, Gnus will never apply score files to articles that have already been through the kill process. While this may save you lots of time, it also means that if you apply a kill file to a group, and then change the kill file and want to run it over you group again to kill more articles, it won't work. You have to set this variable to
tto do that.
nil, this won't work very will. It will find stuff like `gnu/all/SCORE', but will not find files like `not/gnu/all/SCORE'.
A score file is an
emacs-lisp file that normally contains just a
single form. Casual users are not expected to edit these files;
everything can be changed from the summary buffer.
Anyway, if you'd like to dig into it yourself, here's an example:
(("from" ("Lars Ingebrigtsen" -10000) ("Per Abrahamsen") ("larsi\\|lmi" -50000 nil R)) ("subject" ("Ding is Badd" nil 728373)) ("xref" ("alt.politics" -1000 728372 s)) ("lines" (2 -100 nil <)) (mark 0) (expunge -1000) (mark-and-expunge -10) (read-only nil) (orphan -10) (adapt t) (files "/hom/larsi/News/gnu.SCORE") (local (gnus-newsgroup-auto-expire t) (gnus-summary-make-false-root 'empty)) (eval (ding)))
This example demonstrates absolutely everything about a score file.
Even though this looks much like lisp code, nothing here is actually
evaled. The lisp reader is used to read this form, though, so it
has to be legal syntactically, if not semantically.
Six keys are supported by this alist:
gnus-score-interactive-default-scorenumber will be used instead.
R(regexp) as well as
S(substring) types and
E(exact match) types. If this element is not present, Gnus will assume that substring matching should be used.
Sdiffer from the other two in that the matches will be done in a case-sensitive manner. All these one-letter types are really just abbreviations for the
exacttypes, which you can use instead, if you feel like.
after. I can't really imagine this ever being useful, but, like, it would feel kinda silly not to provide this function. Just in case. You never know. Better safe than sorry. Once burnt, twice shy. Don't judge a book by its cover. Never not have sex on a first date.
From(etc) header uses.
evalel. This element will be ignored when handling global score files.
t, the default adaptive scoring rules will be used. If it is
ignore, no adaptive scoring will be performed on this group. If it is a list, this list will be used as the adaptive scoring rules. If it isn't present, or is something other than
ignore, the default adaptive scoring rules will be used. If you want to use adaptive scoring on most groups, you'd set
t, and insert an
(adapt ignore)in the groups where you do not want adaptive scoring. If you only want adaptive scoring in a few groups, you'd set
nil, and insert
(adapt t)in the score files of the groups where you want it.
(VAR VALUE)pairs. Each var will be made buffer-local to the current summary buffer, and set to the value specified. This is a convenient, if somewhat strange, way of setting variables in some groups if you don't like hooks much.
You normally enter all scoring commands from the summary buffer, but you might feel the urge to edit them by hand as well, so we've supplied you with a mode for that.
It's simply a slightly customized
emacs-lisp mode, with these
gnus-score-edit-insert-date). This is really the day number, if you were wondering.
If all this scoring is getting you down, Gnus has a way of making it all happen automatically - as if by magic. Or rather, as if by artificial stupidity, to be precise.
When you read an article, or mark an article as read, or kill an
article, you leave marks behind. On exit from the group, Gnus can sniff
these marks and add score elements depending on what marks it finds.
You turn on this ability by setting
To give you complete control over the scoring process, you can customize
gnus-default-adaptive-score-alist variable. By default, it
looks something like this:
(defvar gnus-default-adaptive-score-alist '((gnus-unread-mark) (gnus-ticked-mark (from 4)) (gnus-dormant-mark (from 5)) (gnus-del-mark (from -4) (subject -1)) (gnus-read-mark (from 4) (subject 2)) (gnus-expirable-mark (from -1) (subject -1)) (gnus-killed-mark (from -1) (subject -3)) (gnus-kill-file-mark) (gnus-catchup-mark (from -1) (subject -1))))
As you see, each element in this alist has a mark as a key (either a variable name or a "real" mark - a character). Following this key is a random number of header/score pairs.
gnus-del-mark as an example - this alist says that all
articles that have that mark (i.e., are marked with `D') will have a
score entry added to lower based on the
From header by -4, and
Subject by -1. Change this to fit your prejudices.
If you use this scheme, you should set
mark-below to something
small - like -300, perhaps, to avoid having small random changes result
in articles getting marked as read.
After using adaptive scoring for a week or so, Gnus should start to become properly trained and enhance the authors you like best, and kill the authors you like least, without you having to say so explicitly.
You can control what groups the adaptive scoring is to be performed on by using the score files (see section Score File Format). This will also let you use different rules in different groups.
The adaptive score entries will be put into a file where the name is the
group name with
When doing adaptive scoring, substring or fuzzy matching would probably
give you the best results in most cases. However, if the header one
matches is short, the possibility for false positives is great, so if
the length of the match is less than
gnus-score-exact-adapt-limit, exact matching will be used. If
this variable is
nil, exact matching will always be used to avoid
("xref" (" talk.politics.misc:" -1000))
("xref" ("[^:\n]+:[0-9]+ +[^:\n]+:[0-9]+ +[^:\n]+:[0-9]+" -1000 nil r))
All), you should choose one and stick with it in each score file. If you use any two, each article will be fetched twice. If you want to match a bit on the
Headand a bit on the
Body, just use
Allfor all the matches.
((mark -100))You may also consider doing something similar with
[^abcd]*, you may get unexpected results. That will match newlines, which might lead to, well, The Unknown. Say
If you want to keep just articles that have `Sex with Emacs' in the subject header, and expunge all other articles, you could put something like this in your score file:
(("subject" ("Sex with Emacs" 2)) (mark 1) (expunge 1))
So, you raise all articles that match `Sex with Emacs' and mark the rest as read, and expunge them to boot.
Sure, other newsreaders have "global kill files". These are usually nothing more than a single kill file that applies to all groups, stored in the user's home directory. Bah! Puny, weak newsreaders!
What I'm talking about here are Global Score Files. Score files from all over the world, from users everywhere, uniting all nations in one big, happy score file union! Ange-score! New and untested!
All you have to do to use other people's score files is to set the
gnus-global-score-files variable. One entry for each score file,
or each score file directory. Gnus will decide by itself what score
files are applicable to which group.
Say you want to use all score files in the `/email@example.com:/pub/score' directory and the single score file `/firstname.lastname@example.org:/pub/larsi/ding/score/soc.motss.SCORE':
(setq gnus-global-score-files '("/email@example.com:/pub/larsi/ding/score/soc.motss.SCORE" "/firstname.lastname@example.org:/pub/score/"))
Simple, eh? Directory names must end with a `/'. These
directories are typically scanned only once during each Gnus session.
If you feel the need to manually re-scan the remote directories, you can
Note that, at present, using this option will slow down group entry somewhat. (That is - a lot.)
If you want to start maintaining score files for other people to use, just put your score file up for anonymous ftp and announce it to the world. Become a retro-moderator! Participate in the retro-moderator wars sure to ensue, where retro-moderators battle it out for the sympathy of the people, luring them to use their score files on false premises! Yay! The net is saved!
Here are some tips for the would-be retro-moderator, off the top of my head:
expungeatoms to obliterate the nastiest articles completely.
... I wonder whether other newsreaders will support global score files in the future. Snicker. Yup, any day now, newsreaders like Blue Wave, xrn and 1stReader are bound to implement scoring. Should we start holding our breath yet?
Gnus still supports those pesky old kill files. In fact, the kill file entries can now be expiring, which is something I wrote before Per thought of doing score files, so I've left the code in there.
In short, kill processing is a lot slower (and I do mean a lot) than score processing, so it might be a good idea to rewrite your kill files into score files.
Anyway, a kill file is a normal
emacs-lisp file. You can put any
forms into this file, which means that you can use kill files as some
sort of primitive hook function to be run on group entry, even though
that isn't a very good idea.
XCNormal kill files look like this:
(gnus-kill "From" "Lars Ingebrigtsen") (gnus-kill "Subject" "ding") (gnus-expunge "X")
This will mark every article written by me as read, and remove them from the summary buffer. Very useful, you'll agree.
Other programs use a totally different kill file syntax. If Gnus
encounters what looks like a
rn kill file, it will take a stab at
Two functions for editing a GNUS kill file:
A kill file for the group `soc.motss' is normally called
`soc.motss.KILL'. The suffix appended to the group name to get
this file name is detailed by the
The "global" kill file (not in the score file sense of "global", of
course) is called just `KILL'.
gnus-kill-save-kill-file is non-
nil, Gnus will save the
kill file after processing, which is necessary if you use expiring
Some commands only make sense in mail groups. If these commands are illegal in the current group, they will raise a hell and let you know.
All these commands (except the expiry and edit commands) use the process/prefix convention (see section Process/Prefix).
gnus-summary-expire-articles-now). This means that all articles that are eligeble for expiry in the current group will disappear forever into that big `/dev/null' in the sky.
gnus-summary-import-article). You will be prompted for a file name, a
Fromheader and a
gnus-summary-edit-article). To finish editing and make the changes permanent, type C-c C-c (gnus-summary-edit-article-done).
gnus-summary-prepare-hook is called after the summary buffer has
been generated. You might use it to, for instance, highlight lines or
modify the look of the buffer in some other ungodly manner. I don't
gnus-summary-fetch-faq). Gnus will try to get the FAQ from
gnus-group-faq-directory, which is usually a directory on a remote machine.
ange-ftpwill be used for fetching the file.
gnus-summary-describe-group). If given a prefix, force rereading the description from the server.
gnus-summary-expand-window). If given a prefix, force an