# 2280 Lecture Record Week 15 S2015

Last Modified: April 22, 2015, 12:12 MDT.    Today: December 16, 2018, 17:57 MST.

### Week 15: Sections 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

``` Edwards-Penney, sections 9.1 to 9.4
The textbook topics, definitions and theoremsEdwards-Penney BVP 9.1 to 9.4 (3.7 K, txt, 17 Apr 2015)```

#### Monday and Tuesday: Fourier Series. Section 9.1, 9.2, 9.3

```Chapter 9 Edwards-Penney BVP textbook
Fourier Series Methods

9.1 Periodic Functions and Trigonometric Series

DEF. Periodic Function. f(t+p)=f(t) for all t. p=period.

Orthogonality Relations

DEF.  Two functions u, v are said to be othogonal on [a,b] provided integral(u*v,a..b)=0.
A list of functions is said to be othogonal on [a,b] provided any two of them are orthgonal on [a,b].

THEOREM. The trigonometric list of sin(nt), cos(mt), n=1..infinity, m=0..infinity, is orthogonal on [-Pi,Pi].
The trigonometric list is independent on [-Pi,Pi], because it is a list of Euler atoms.

DEF. A Fourier series is a formal sum of trigonometric terms from the trig list.
A Fourier sine series is a Fourier series with no cosine terms.
A Fourier cosine series is a Fourier series with no sine terms.

Fourier Coefficient Formulas

Let f(x) be defined on [-Pi,Pi]. Define

a[m] = (1/Pi)*integral(f(t)*cos(mt),-Pi..Pi), m=0..infinity

b[n] = (1/Pi)*integral(f(t)*sin(nt),-Pi..Pi), n=1..infinity

Classical Fourier Series

(1/2)*a[0] + SUM( a[m]*cos(m*x), m=1..infinity)  +  SUM( b[n]*sin(n*x), n=1..infinity)

THEOREM. The formulas for a[m], b[n] need not be memorized. They arise from one idea:

(2)  Multiply the equation in (1) by one trigonometric atom. Integrate over [-Pi,Pi].
(3)  Orthogonality implies that the integrated series has exactly one nonzero term!
Divide to find the corresponding coefficient a[m] or b[n].

DEF:   = integral(u*v,a..b). It has these INNER PRODUCT properties. The vector space V
together with these properties is called an INNER PRODUCT SPACE.

(1)  =  +   linear in the first argument
(2)  = c*
(3) =  symmetry
(4)  = 0 if and only if u=0

DEF:  On inner product space V, the NORM is defined by |u| =sqrt(),
or equivalently, |u|^2 = .

DEF: A VECTOR is a package in a set V. Set V, called a VECTOR SPACE, is equipped with
addition and scalar multiplication, such that the two closure laws hold and the 8 properties
are valid (group under addition, scalar disribution laws).

THEOREM. Let  n=1..infinity be a list of orthogonal functions on [a,b].
Let f = SUM(c[n]*f[n],n=1..infinity). Then

c[n] = / = integral(f*f[n],a..b) / integral(f[n]*f[n],a..b)

EXAMPLE. Find a[m], b[n] for the square wave
f(x) = -1 on (-Pi,0), f(x) = 1 on (0,Pi), f(x)=0 for x=-Pi,0,Pi.
Plot the Fourier series F(x) of f(x) on -2Pi to 2Pi.

ANSWER. a[m]=0 for all m, because f(x) is odd.
b[n] = 4/(n*Pi) for n odd
b[n] = 0 for n even
GIBB's OVERSHOOT.

At discontinuities of f(x), F(x) has a strange behavior, called Gibb's Overshoot.
This can be seen by plotting a truncated Fourier series near discontinuities of f(x).

EXAMPLE.  Find the Fourier series of f(x) on [-Pi,Pi], where f(x) = x*pulse(x,0,Pi)
except that f(x)=Pi/2 at x=Pi and x=-Pi.
a[m] = [(-1)^m-1]/(m^2*Pi^2)  for m=1..infinity
b[n] = (-1)^n(-1)/n  for n=1..infinity

9.2  Fourier Convergence Theorem

THEOREM. Let f(x) be smooth on [-Pi,Pi] and F(x) its formal Fourier series,
built with the Fourier coefficient formulas.
Then f(x) = F(x) for all x in [-Pi,Pi].

THEOREM. The convergence theorem above continues to hold if f(x) is only piecewise smooth,
but the equation f(x) = F(x) only holds at points of continuity of f(x).
At other points, there is the equation (f(x+)+f(x-))/2  =  F(x).

THEOREM.  The series convergence is uniform if f(x) is smooth. It is not uniform for the Gibb's example.

```
```Slides on Dynamical Systems
Manuscript: Systems theory and examples (730.9 K, pdf, 10 Apr 2014)   Slides: Laplace second order systems, spring-mass,boxcars, earthquakes (288.1 K, pdf, 03 Mar 2012)   Slides: Introduction to dynamical systems (145.4 K, pdf, 05 Apr 2015)   Slides: Phase Portraits for dynamical systems (221.3 K, pdf, 05 Apr 2015)   Slides: Stability for dynamical systems (154.4 K, pdf, 05 Apr 2015)   Slides: Nonlinear classification spiral, node, center, saddle (98.0 K, pdf, 05 Apr 2015)   Slides: Matrix Exponential, Putzer Formula, Variation Parameters (123.5 K, pdf, 29 Mar 2015)
```