Edwards-Penney, sections 5.6, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4 The textbook topics, definitions and theorems

Edwards-Penney 5.5, 5.6 (15.5 K, txt, 18 Dec 2013)

Edwards-Penney 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5 (20.5 K, txt, 18 Dec 2013)

Lecture: Basic Laplace theory.Reading: Chapter 10. Read ch6, ch7, ch8, ch9 later. Direct Laplace transform == Laplace integral. Def: Direct Laplace transform == Laplace integral == int(f(t)exp(-st),t=0..infinity) == L(f(t)).Introduction and History of Laplace's methodPhotos of Newton and Laplace: portraits of the Two Greats.: Laplace and Newton calculus. Photos of Newton and Laplace. (200.2 K, pdf, 03 Mar 2012) The method of quadrature for higher order equations and systems. Calculus for chapter one quadrature versus the Laplace calculus. The Laplace integrator dx=exp(-st)dt. The abbreviation L(f(t)) for the Laplace integral of f(t). Lerch's cancelation law and the fundamental theorem of calculus.SlidesIntro to Laplace Theory: Intro to Laplace theory. Calculus assumed. (144.8 K, pdf, 25 Mar 2015) A Brief Laplace Table 1, t, t^2, t^n, exp(at), cos(bt), sin(bt) Some Laplace rules: Linearity, Lerch Laplace's L-notation and the forward tableSlidesLaplace theory references: Laplace and Newton calculus. Photos. (200.2 K, pdf, 03 Mar 2012)Slides: Intro to Laplace theory. Calculus assumed. (144.8 K, pdf, 25 Mar 2015)Slides: Laplace theory 2008 (497.3 K, pdf, 19 Mar 2014)Manuscript: Laplace rules (160.3 K, pdf, 03 Mar 2012) Problems 10.1: 18, 22, 28Slides

Laplace theory references: Laplace and Newton calculus. Photos. (200.2 K, pdf, 03 Mar 2012)Slides: Intro to Laplace theory. Calculus assumed. (144.8 K, pdf, 25 Mar 2015)Slides: Laplace theory 2008 (497.3 K, pdf, 19 Mar 2014)Manuscript: Laplace rules (160.3 K, pdf, 03 Mar 2012)Slides: Laplace table proofs (169.6 K, pdf, 03 Mar 2012)Slides: Laplace examples (133.2 K, pdf, 27 Mar 2015)Slides: Piecewise functions and Laplace theory (108.5 K, pdf, 03 Mar 2013)Slides: Optional Maple Lab 7. Laplace applications (151.5 K, pdf, 29 Nov 2014)MAPLE: Laplace resolvent method (88.1 K, pdf, 03 Mar 2012)Slides: Cable hoist example (73.2 K, pdf, 21 Aug 2008)Slides: Sliding plates example (105.8 K, pdf, 21 Aug 2008)Slides: Heaviside's method 2008 (352.3 K, pdf, 07 Jan 2014)Manuscript: DE systems, examples, theory (730.9 K, pdf, 10 Apr 2014)Manuscript: Laplace theory 2008 (497.3 K, pdf, 19 Mar 2014)Manuscript: Ch10 Laplace solutions 10.1 to 10.4 (1068.7 K, pdf, 28 Nov 2010)Transparencies: Laplace theory problem notes S2013 (17.7 K, txt, 30 Apr 2015)Text: Final exam study guide (8.3 K, txt, 06 Jan 2015)Text: Laplace second order systems (288.1 K, pdf, 03 Mar 2012)Slides

Problems 10.1: 18, 22, 28: Laplace theory problem notes (17.7 K, txt, 30 Apr 2015)TextHistory of the Laplace TransformREF: Deakin (1981), Development of the Laplace transform 1737 to 1937 EULER LAPLACE 1784 End of WWII 1945 Fourier Transform Mellin Transform and Gamma function Laplace transform: one-sided and 2-sided transform Applications: DE, PDE, difference equations, functional equations Diffusion equation for spatial diffusion problems Existence of the Laplace integral. One-sided and two-sided Laplace integral Freeway example, suspension collides with a ramp. DEF. Gamma function Gamma(t) = integral x=0 to x=infinity x^{t-1} e^{-x} Gamma(n)=(n-1)!, generalizes the factorial function DEF. Mellin transform {Mf}(s)= phi(s)=integral x=0 to x=infinity x^{s-1} f(x) DEF. Two-sided Laplace transform {Bf}(s) = {Mf(-ln(x))}(s) = integral x=0 to x=infinity x^{s-1}f(-ln x)A brief Laplace table.Forward table. Backward table. Extensions of the Table.Laplace rules.Linearity. The s-differentiation theorem (d/ds)L(f(t))=L((-t)f(t)). Shift theorem. Parts theorem. Finding Laplace integrals using Laplace calculus.Laplace theory references: Laplace and Newton calculus. Photos. (200.2 K, pdf, 03 Mar 2012)Slides: Laplace rules (160.3 K, pdf, 03 Mar 2012)Slides: Intro to Laplace theory. Calculus assumed. (144.8 K, pdf, 25 Mar 2015)Slides: Laplace theory 2008 (497.3 K, pdf, 19 Mar 2014) Solving differential equations by Laplace's method.ManuscriptBasic Theorems of Laplace TheoryFunctions of exponential order Existence theorem for Laplace integrals Euler solution atoms have a Laplace integral Lerch's theorem Linearity. The s-differentiation theorem (d/ds)L(f(t))=L((-t)f(t)). Shift theorem L(exp(at)f(t)) = L(f(t))|s->(s-a) Parts theorem L(y')=sL(y)-y(0) Slide: Solving y' = -1, y(0)=2 with Laplace's method Examples:

Forward table Parts formula derivation. Laplace's method and quadrature for higher order equations and systems Solving x'' + 4x = t exp(-t), x(0)=1, x'(0)=0 by the Laplace method DEF:Piecewise Continuous FunctionFunctions of exponential order. Existence of the Laplace integral. One-sided and two-sided Laplace integral Freeway example, suspension collides with a ramp.Piecewise FunctionsUnit Step: u(t)=1 for t>=0, u(t)=0 for t<0. Pulse: pulse(t,a,b)=u(t-a)-u(t-b) Ramp: ramp(t-a)=(t-a)u(t-a) L(u(t-a)) = (1/s) exp(-as) [for a >= 0 only]Integral TheoremL(int(g(x),x=0..t)) = s L(g(t))Piecewise defined periodic wavesSquare wave: f(t)=1 on [0,1), f(t)=-1 on [1,2), 2-periodic Triangular wave: f(t)=|t| on [-1,1], 2-periodic Sawtooth wave: f(t)=t on [0,1], 1-periodic Rectified sine: f(t)=|sin(kt)| Half-wave rectified sine: f(t)=sin(kt) when positive, else zero. Parabolic wavePeriodic function theoremProof details Laplace of the square wave. Problem 7.5-25. Answer: (1/s)tanh(as/2)Laplace theory references: Laplace and Newton calculus. Photos. (200.2 K, pdf, 03 Mar 2012)Slides: Intro to Laplace theory. Calculus assumed. (144.8 K, pdf, 25 Mar 2015)Slides: Laplace rules (160.3 K, pdf, 03 Mar 2012)Slides: Laplace table proofs (169.6 K, pdf, 03 Mar 2012)Slides: Laplace examples (133.2 K, pdf, 27 Mar 2015)Slides: Piecewise functions and Laplace theory (108.5 K, pdf, 03 Mar 2013)Slides: Maple Lab 7. Laplace applications (151.5 K, pdf, 29 Nov 2014)MAPLE: DE systems, examples, theory (730.9 K, pdf, 10 Apr 2014)Manuscript: Laplace resolvent method (88.1 K, pdf, 03 Mar 2012)Slides: Laplace second order systems (288.1 K, pdf, 03 Mar 2012)Slides: Home heating, attic, main floor, basement (99.3 K, pdf, 09 Apr 2014)Slides: Cable hoist example (73.2 K, pdf, 21 Aug 2008)Slides: Sliding plates example (105.8 K, pdf, 21 Aug 2008)Slides: Heaviside's method 2008 (352.3 K, pdf, 07 Jan 2014)Manuscript: Laplace theory 2008 (500.9 K, pdf, 16 Mar 2014)Manuscript: Ch10 Laplace solutions 10.1 to 10.4 (1068.7 K, pdf, 28 Nov 2010)Transparencies: Laplace theory problem notes F2008 (17.7 K, txt, 30 Apr 2015)Text: Final exam study guide (8.3 K, txt, 06 Jan 2015)Text

Lab 11. The Week 11 Lab will have Laplace problems. Details Wed-Thu of Week 11. There is no Lab 10, because that was the week of Spring Break. Lab 9 problems are due Thursday. See week 9 in the CALENDAR for the PDF link.

Applications of Laplace's method from 10.3, 10.4, 10.5Convolution theoremDEF. Convolution of f and g = f*g(t) = integral of f(x)g(t-x) from x=0 to x=t THEOREM. L(f(t))L(g(t))=L(convolution of f and g) Application: L(cos t)L(sin t) = L(0.5 t sin(t))Second shifting Theoremse^{-as}L(f(t))=L(f(t-a)u(t-a)) Backward table L(g(t)u(t-a))=e^{-as}L(g(t+a)) Forward table EXAMPLES. Forward table L(sin(t)u(t-Pi)) = e^{-Pi s} L(sin(t)|t->t+Pi) = e^{-Pi s} L(sin(t+Pi)) = e^{-Pi s} L(sin(t)cos(Pi)+sin(Pi)cos(t)) = e^{-Pi s} L(-sin(t)) = e^{-Pi s} ( -1/(s^2+1)) Backward table L(f(t)) = e^{-2s}/s^2 = e^{-2s} L(t) = L(t u(t)|t->t-2) = L((t-2)u(t-2)) Therefore f(t) = (t-2)u(t-2) = ramp at t=2.Laplace Resolvent Method.--> This method is a shortcut for solving systems by Laplace's method. --> It is also a convenient way to solve systems with maple.: Laplace resolvent method (88.1 K, pdf, 03 Mar 2012)Slides

DEF. Gamma function Gamma(t) = integral x=0 to x=infinity x^{t-1} e^{-x} Gamma(n)=(n-1)!, generalizes the factorial function DEF. Mellin transform {Mf](s)= phi(s)=integral x=0 to x=infinity x^{s-1} f(x) DEF. Two-sided Laplace transform {Bf}(s) = {Mf(-ln(x))}(s) = integral x=0 to x=infinity x^{s-1}f(-ln x) DEF. Unit step u(t-a)=1 for t>=a, else zero DEF. Ramp t->(t-a)u(t-a) Backward table problems: examples Forward table problems: examples Computing Laplace integrals L(f(t)) with rules Solving an equation L(y(t))=expression in s for y(t) Complex roots and quadratic factors Partial fraction methods Trig identities and their use in Laplace calculations Hyperbolic functions and Laplace calculations Why the forward and backward tables don't have cosh, sinh entriesPiecewise FunctionsUnit Step: u(t)=1 for t>=0, u(t)=0 for t<0. Pulse: pulse(t,a,b)=u(t-a)-u(t-b) Ramp: ramp(t-a)=(t-a)u(t-a) L(u(t-a)) = (1/s) exp(-as) [for a >= 0 only]Integral TheoremL(int(g(x),x=0..t)) = s L(g(t)) Applications to computing ramp(t-a) L(ramp(t-a)) = (1/s^2) exp(-as) [for a >= 0 only]Piecewise defined periodic wavesSquare wave: f(t)=1 on [0,1), f(t)=-1 on [1,2), 2-periodic Triangular wave: f(t)=|t| on [-1,1], 2-periodic Sawtooth wave: f(t)=t on [0,1], 1-periodic Rectified sine: f(t)=|sin(kt)| Half-wave rectified sine: f(t)=sin(kt) when positive, else zero. Parabolic wavePeriodic function theoremProof details Laplace of the square wave. Problem 10.5-25. Answer: (1/s)tanh(as/2) Applications of Laplace's method from 10.3, 10.4, 10.5Convolution theoremDEF. Convolution of f and g = f*g(t) = integral of f(x)g(t-x) from x=0 to x=t THEOREM. L(f(t))L(g(t))=L(convolution of f and g) Application: L(cos t)L(sin t) = L(0.5 t sin(t))Second shifting Theoremse^{-as}L(f(t))=L(f(t-a)u(t-a)) Backward table L(g(t)u(t-a))=e^{-as}L(g(t+a)) Forward table EXAMPLES. Forward table L(sin(t)u(t-Pi)) = e^{-Pi s} L(sin(t)|t->t+Pi) = e^{-Pi s} L(sin(t+Pi)) = e^{-Pi s} L(sin(t)cos(Pi)+sin(Pi)cos(t)) = e^{-Pi s} L(-sin(t)) = e^{-Pi s} ( -1/(s^2+1)) Backward table L(f(t)) = e^{-2s}/s^2 = e^{-2s} L(t) = L(t u(t)|t->t-2) = L((t-2)u(t-2)) Therefore f(t) = (t-2)u(t-2) = ramp at t=2.Application to computing ramp(t-a)L(ramp(t-a)) = (1/s^2) exp(-as) [for a >= 0 only]Laplace Resolvent Method.--> This method is a shortcut for solving systems by Laplace's method. --> It is also a convenient way to solve systems with maple.: Laplace resolvent method (88.1 K, pdf, 03 Mar 2012)SlidesIntro to the Laplace resolvent shortcut for 2x2 systemsProblem: Write a 2x2 dynamical system as a vector-matrix equation u'=Au. Problem: Solve a 2x2 dynamical system in vector-matrix form u'=Au. The general vector-matrix DE Model u'=Au Laplace of u(t) = Resolvent times u(0) Resolvent = inverse(sI - A)Chapter 1 methods for solving 2x2 systemsSolve the systems by ch1 methods for x(t), y(t): x' = 2x, x(0)=100, y' = 3y, y(0)=50. Answer: x = 100 exp(2t), y = 50 exp(3t) x' = 2x+y, x(0)=1, y' = 3y, y(0)=2. Answer: y(t) = 2 exp(3t) and x(t) is the solution of the linear integrating factor problem x'(t)=2x(t)+2 exp(3t).