Math 2250 Maple Project 6, Fall 2006. Tacoma Narrows.
NAME _______________________ CLASSTIME ________ VERSION A-K or L-Z
Circle the version - see problem L6.1. There are three (3) problems in
this project. Please answer the questions A, B, C , ... associated with
each problem. The original worksheet "2250mapleL6-F2006.mws" is a
template for the solution; you must fill in the code and all comments.
Sample code can be copied with the mouse. Use pencil freely to annotate
the worksheet and to clarify the code and figures.
The problem headers for the FALL 2006 revision of David Eyre's project
(original was year 2000).
__________L6.1. UNDAMPED FORCED OSCILLATIONS.
__________L6.2. PRACTICAL RESONANCE.
__________L6.3. MCKENNA NON-HOOKES LAW CABLE MODEL.
L6.1. PROBLEM (UNDAMPED FORCED OSCILLATIONS )
FORCED LINEAR OSCILLATIONS. Consider the undamped forced problem
mx'' + k x = 9 cos(wt),
x(0)=0, x'(0)=0,
where m, k and w are non-negative constants. Values m, k are defined by
the first letter of your last name:
Version A-K: m=1, k=2.5 Version L-Z: m=2, k=3.5
A. Choose the forcing angular frequency w to be 5 times larger than
the natural angular frequency w0, w0^2=k/m. Solve for x(t) using
dsolve(). Plot the solution x(t) on a suitable interval in order
to show the global behavior of the solution x(t). See Figure
5.6.2, page 350. Reference: Example 1, page 350.
B. The solution x(t) in part A is the sum of two functions, one of
period 2Pi/w and the other of period 2Pi/w0. Display the exact
period, as calculated from the solution formula for x(t) -- see
page 350, Example 1, for details about least common multiples.
C. Suggest a value for the forcing frequency w so that the
oscillations exhibit resonance. Show resonant behavior on a
graph. Check against Figure 5.6.4, page 352.
# Use semicolons to see what you have done.
m:=???; k:=???; # Define mass and Hooke's const.
w:=5*sqrt(k/m): # w = 5 times w0
de:=m*diff(x(t),t,t)+k*x(t)=9*cos(w*t); # Define the differential equation
ic:=x(0)=0,D(x)(0)= 0: # Define the initial conditions
p:=dsolve({de,ic},x(t),method=laplace): # Symbolically solve for x(t)
X:=unapply(rhs(p),t): # Make X(t)= the dsolve answer
a:=0: b:=???: # Define the plot domain
plot(X(t),t=a..b); # Plot the solution
>
> #L6.1-A
> #L6.1-B
> #L6.1-C
>
L6.2. PROBLEM (PRACTICAL RESONANCE)
Consider the damped forced problem
mx'' + c x' + k x = 9 cos(w t),
x(0)=0, x'(0)=0.
Depending on the first letter of your last name, assume:
Version A-K: m=1, k=25 Version L-Z: m=2, k=36
A. Consider the damping constants c=2, c=1 and c=1/2. Compute the
amplitude function C(w) [(21), page 355] for these three
equations, then plot for w=0 to w=20 the three amplitude graphs
on a single set of axes. Compare against Figure 5.6.9 page 357 of
E&P (it has one curve, yours has 3 curves).
B. For each case c=2, c=1, c=1/2, print the values w*, C* where
C*=C(w*)=max {C(w) : 0 <= w <= 20}. The three data pairs should
show that C* becomes larger as c tends to zero. SAVE YOUR MAPLE
FILE FREQUENTLY
Maple Hint: Use Maple's mouse interface on the graphic of Part C.
Specifically, click on a possible maximum (horizontal tangent) in
the graph to display the values w*, C* on the screen. Copy the
values into a worksheet comment.
# EXAMPLE
F:=???: m:=???: k:=???: unassign('c','w'):
C:=unapply(F/sqrt((k-m*w*w)^2+(c*w)^2),(w,c));
plot({C(w,2),C(w,1),C(w,1/2)},w=0..15,color=black);
>
> #L6.2-A Plot C(w), three graphics on one set of axes
> #L6.2-B Table of six data values for w*, C*
>
L6.3. PROBLEM (NONLINEAR MCKENNA MODELS)
There are six (6) parts L6.3A to L6.3F to complete. Mostly, this is mouse
copying. Retyping the maple code by hand is not recommended.
NONLINEAR TORSIONAL MODEL WITH GEOMETRY INCLUDED.
Consider the nonlinear, forced, damped oscillator equation for torsional
motion, with bridge geometry included,
x'' + 0.05 x' + 2.4 sin(x)cos(x) = 0.06 cos (12 t/10) ,
x(0) = x0, x'(0) = v0
and its corresponding linearized equation
x'' + 0.05 x' + 2.4 x = 0.06 cos (12 t/10) ,
x(0) = x0, x'(0) = v0.
The spring-mass system parameters are m=1, c = 0.05, k = 2.4, w = 1.2 ,
F = 0.06. Maple code used to solve and plot the solutions appears below.
# Use "copy as maple text" for maple 6+.
x0:=0: a:=200: b:=300: # For part A. Change it for part B!
v0:=0: m:=1: F := 0.06: w := 1.2: m:=1: c:= 0.05: k:= 2.4:
with(DEtools): opts:=stepsize=0.1:
deLinear:= m*diff(x(t),t,t) + c*diff(x(t),t) + k*x(t) = F*cos(w*t):
IClinear:=[[x(0)=x0,D(x)(0)=v0]]:
DEplot(deLinear,x(t),t=a..b,IClinear,opts,title='Linear');
deNonLinear:= m*diff(x(t),t,t) + c*diff(x(t),t) +
k*sin(x(t))*cos(x(t)) = F*cos(w*t):
ICnonlinear:=[[x(0)=x0,D(x)(0)=v0]]:
DEplot(deNonLinear,x(t),t=a..b,ICnonlinear,opts,title='NonLinear');
A. Let x0=0, v0=0. Plot the solutions of the linear and nonlinear
equations from t=200 to t=300. These plots represent the steady
state solutions of the two equations.
B. Let x0=1.2, v0=0. Plot the solutions of the linear and nonlinear
equations from t=220 to t=320. These plots represent the steady
state solutions of the two equation, with new starting value
x0=1.2. [You must modify line 1 of the maple code!]
The two linear plots in A and B have to be identical to the plot
of xss(t). The reason is the superposition formula (see E&P)
x(t)=xh(t)+xss(t), even though the homogeneous solution xh(t) is
different for the two plots. This is because xh(t) has limit
zero at t=infinity.
C. Determine the ratio of the apparent amplitudes (a number > 1) for
the nonlinear plots in A and B. Do "large sustained oscillations"
appear in the plot of the nonlinear steady-state?
>
> #L6.3-A
> #L6.3-B
> #L6.3-C
>
MCKENNA'S NON-HOOKE'S LAW CABLE MODEL FOR THE TACOMA NARROWS BRIDGE
The model of McKenna studies the bridge with a nonlinear, forced, damped
oscillator equation for torsional motion that accounts for the
non-Hooke's law cables coupled to the equations for vertical motion.
The equations in this case couple the torsional motion with the vertical
motion. The equations are:
x'' + c x' - k G(x,y) = F sin wt, x(0) = x0, x'(0) = x1,
y'' + c y' + (k/3) H(x,y) = g , y(0) = y0, y'(0) = y1,
where x(t) is the torsional motion and y(t) is the vertical motion. The
functions G(x,y) and H(x,y) are the models of the force generated by the
cable when it is contracted and stretched. Below is sample code for
writing the differential equations and for plotting the solutions. It is
ready to copy with the mouse.
with(DEtools):
w := 1.3: F := 0.05: f(t) := F*sin(w*t):
c := 0.01: k1 := 0.2: k2 := 0.4: g := 9.8: L := 6:
STEP:=x->piecewise(x<0,0,1):
fp(t) := y(t)+(L*sin(x(t))):
fm(t) := y(t)-(L*sin(x(t))):
Sm(t) := STEP(fm(t))*fm(t):
Sp(t) := STEP(fp(t))*fp(t):
sys := {
diff(x(t),t,t) + c*diff(x(t),t) - k1*cos(x(t))*(Sm(t)-Sp(t))=f(t),
diff(y(t),t,t) + c*diff(y(t),t) + k2*(Sm(t)+Sp(t)) = g}:
ic := [[x(0)=0, D(x)(0)=0, y(0)=27.25, D(y)(0)=0]]:
vars:=[x(t),y(t)]:
opts:=stepsize=0.1:
DEplot(sys,vars,t=0..300,ic,opts,scene=[t,x]);
The amazing thing that happens in this simulation is that the large
vertical oscillations take all the tension out of the springs and they
induce large torsional oscillations.
D. TORSIONAL OSCILLATION PLOT. Get the sample code above to produce the
plot of x(t) [that's what scene=[t,x] means].
E. Estimate the number of degrees the roadway tilts based on the plot.
Recall that x in the plot is reported in radians. Comment on the
agreement of this result with historical data and the video evidence
in the film clip.
Tip: Average the five largest amplitudes in the plot to find an
average maximum amplitude for t=0 to t=300. Convert to degrees
using Pi radians = 180 degrees. The film clip shows roadway maximum
tilt of 30 to 45 degrees, approximately.
F. VERTICAL OSCILLATION PLOT. Modify the DEplot code to scene=[t,y] and
plot the oscillation y(t) on t=0 to t=300. The plot is supposed to
show 30-foot vertical oscillations along the roadway that dampen to
7-foot vertical oscillations after 300 seconds.
The agreement between these oscillation results and the historical
data for Tacoma Narrows, especially the visual data present in the
film clip of the bridge disaster, should be clear from the plots.
This is your only answer check for the plot results.
>
> #L6.3-D Torsional plot t-versus-x
> #L6.3-E Roadway oscillation estimate in degrees + comments.
> #L6.3-F Vertical plot t-versus-y.
>