Examples of control problems

Process Controls Function evaluation
Optimization of a framework The positions and thickness of beams. Modeling of the strength, stiffness, may be evaluation for several loadings. 
Optimization of the structure of an enforced composite The directions and rate of enforcing, the materials used, their percentage. Modeling of the effective moduli, limiting load, process of decaying
Efficiency of a chemical reactor The temperature in several zones, the exposition times, the concentration of components, the presence of a catalyst or inhibitor (Boolean variables)  Rough estimates: computing the mathematical model. Precise measurements: Real life experiments
Efficiency of a small company Quantities of producing items, speed of the production, the structure of investments and the debt payments The modeling includes the production cost, the market relation with build-in uncertainties, long - and short-term profits, insurances, etc. 
Structures like buildings and bridges Thousands of parameters that characterize the shape and the strength of the design, the material used (Boolean variables) . Constrains define the purpose of the construction and the architect's taste.  Calculation of the inner stresses using the large scale modelling; possible accunts for aging and for various extreme situations such as a storm or earthquake. 
Construction of a can, plane, ship, or spacecraft Tens of thousand of variables, including the shape, and composition of the body, parameters of an engine. A lot of independent empirical decisions based on traditions, designer experience and taste. Several level of modelling. A huge model that mimics the performance of the equipment in different regimes, including partial failure. Independent models of the parts of the project. 
Fuzzy problems
Stock market Time of buying and selling, types of stocks If only I knew it! 
Political Projects  Tons of not clearly specified parameters and restrictions including public opinion research, lobbing, forming alliances, bribing, threading, or bombing the opponents No one knows the long-term goal or the projected response to the project: This is why the experiments in viva are so popular!