README: Installation instruction for dired-4.00

Last update: Fri Jul 10 10:20:49 1998

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As with most GNUware, you can build, test, and install this program on most UNIX systems by these simple steps

csh et amici:
        setenv CC ...your favorite C or C++ compiler...
        ./configure && make all check install

sh et amici:
        CC=...your favorite C or C++ compiler...
        export CC
        ./configure && make all check install

Or in one line, if you have env (most modern UNIX systems do):

        env CC=... ./configure && make all check install

If you don't set the CC environment variable, then gcc (or cc, if gcc is not available) will be assumed.

If you wish to undo a make install, just do make uninstall; this will remove any files in system directories put there by make install.

See below for further details, and for instructions for non-UNIX systems.


Please report all problems, suggestions, and comments to the maintainer and co-author:

Nelson H. F. Beebe
Center for Scientific Computing
University of Utah
Department of Mathematics, 322 INSCC
155 S 1400 E RM 233
Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090
Tel: +1 801 581 5254
FAX: +1 801 585 1640, +1 801 581 4148
Email: , , (Internet)

The principal author is no longer able to maintain this program.


dired 4.00 has been updated to use the GNU autoconf automatic configuration system for UNIX installations.

GNU autoconf is run at the maintainer's site to produce the configure script from .

The configure script is run at each installer's UNIX site to produce Makefile from , and config.h from config.hin. The configure script is a large (4100+ lines) Bourne shell program that investigates various aspects of the local C implementation, and records its conclusions in config.h.

For convenience and safety, the distribution includes a subdirectory named save that contains read-only copies of the files Makefile, config.h, and configure created by autoconf and make configure. This will allow recovery from a lost or damaged configure file.

Should you do a make maintainer-clean [ not recommended, except at the maintainer's site], the configure script will be deleted, and you will need recent versions of both GNU m4 and autoconf correctly installed to reconstruct things, which can be done this way:

        make -f save/Makefile reconfigure

Suitable hand-crafted config.h files are provided for non-UNIX systems, and in the unlikely event of a failure of the configure script on a UNIX system, config.h can be manually produced from a copy of config.hin with a few seconds of editing work. If you do this, remember to save a copy of your config.h under a different name, because running configure will destroy it. If you have GNU autoconf installed (the installation is very simple and source code is available from x.y .tar.gz ), you might try augmenting instead, then run autoconf, autoheader, and configure.

Thus, on UNIX, installation normally consists of just two steps (assuming a csh -compatible shell):

        setenv CC ...your favorite C or C++ compiler...
        ./configure && make all check install

If you like, add OPT='your favorite optimization flags' to the make command; by default, no optimization flags are set.

The GNU standard installation directories /usr/local/bin for binaries, and /usr/local/man/man1 for manual pages are assumed. The prefix /usr/local can be overridden by providing an alternate definition on the command line:

        make prefix=/some/other/path install

After installation, you can do

        make distclean

to restore the directories to their distribution state. You should also do this between builds for different architectures from the same source tree; neglecting to do so will almost certainly lead to failure, because the config.cache file created by configure will lead to an incorrect config.h for the next build.

UNIX Systems

The code can be compiled with either C (K&R or ISO/ANSI Standard C) or C++ compilers. With some C++ compilers, it may be necessary to supply additional switches for force the compiler to stay in C++ mode, rather than reverting to C mode (e.g., on DEC Alpha OSF/1, you must do setenv CC "cxx -x cxx" ).

On UNIX systems, the only changes that you are likely to need in the Makefile are the settings of CC and CFLAGS, and possibly, DEFINES, and if you wish to do make install, the settings of bindir, MANDIR, and MANEXT.

These programs have been successfully built and tested with C and C++ compilers and tested on these systems for the 4.00 release (106 builds):

Machine and model O/S Compilers
DEC Alpha 2100-5/250 OSF/1 3.2 /bin/c89, /bin/cc, /bin/cxx -x cxx, /usr/bin/c89, /usr/bin/cc, /usr/ccs/bin/c89, /usr/ccs/bin/cc, /usr/local/bin/g++, /usr/local/bin/gcc, /usr/ucb/cc
DECstation 5000/200 ULTRIX 4.3 /bin/cc, /usr/bin/cc, /usr/local/bin/g++, /usr/local/bin/gcc, /usr/local/bin/lcc -A -A
HP 9000/735 HP-UX 10.01 /bin/CC, /bin/c89, /bin/cc, /usr/bin/CC, /usr/bin/c89, /usr/bin/cc, /usr/ccs/bin/cc, /usr/local/bin/g++, /usr/local/bin/gcc
IBM PowerPC 43P AIX 4.1 /bin/c89, /bin/cc, /bin/xlC, /usr/bin/c89, /usr/bin/cc, /usr/local/bin/g++, /usr/local/bin/gcc
IBM PowerPC 43P AIX 4.2 /bin/c89, /bin/cc, /bin/xlC, /usr/bin/c89, /usr/bin/cc
IBM RS/6000-370 AIX 3.2.5 /bin/c89, /bin/cc, /usr/bin/c89, /usr/bin/cc, /usr/local/bin/gcc
Intel Pentium II MMX (300MHz) Linux 2.0.33 /usr/bin/cc, /usr/bin/g++, /usr/bin/gcc
Intel Pentium MMX (200MHz) Linux 2.0.30 /usr/bin/cc, /usr/bin/g++, /usr/bin/gcc
NeXT Turbostation Mach 3.3 /bin/cc, /usr/local/bin/g++, /usr/local/bin/gcc
SGI Challenge L IRIX 5.3 /bin/CC, /bin/cc, /usr/bin/CC, /usr/bin/DCC, /usr/bin/NCC, /usr/bin/cc, /usr/bin/ncc, /usr/local/bin/g++, /usr/local/bin/gcc
SGI O2 R10000-SC IRIX 6.3 /bin/CC, /bin/c89, /bin/cc, /usr/bin/CC, /usr/bin/DCC, /usr/bin/NCC, /usr/bin/c89, /usr/bin/cc, /bin/cc -n32, /usr/bin/cc -n32, /bin/DCC -32, /bin/NCC -32, /bin/cc -32, /usr/bin/DCC -32, /usr/bin/NCC -32, /usr/bin/cc -32
SGI Origin/200-4 IRIX 6.4 /bin/CC, /bin/c89, /bin/cc, /usr/bin/CC, /usr/bin/DCC, /usr/bin/NCC, /usr/bin/c89, /usr/bin/cc, /usr/local/bin/g++, /usr/local/bin/gcc, /bin/cc -n32, /usr/bin/cc -n32, /bin/DCC -32, /bin/NCC -32, /bin/cc -32, /usr/bin/DCC -32, /usr/bin/NCC -32, /usr/bin/cc -32, /bin/cc -64, /usr/bin/cc -64
Sun SPARC 20/512 Solaris 2.6 /opt/SUNWspro/bin/CC, /opt/SUNWspro/bin/cc, /usr/local/bin/g++, /usr/local/bin/gcc, /usr/local/bin/lcc -A -A
Sun SPARC 4/380 SunOS 4.1.3 /bin/cc, /usr/bin/cc, /usr/lang/acc, /usr/local/bin/g++, /usr/local/bin/gcc, /usr/ucb/cc

A tour of, or why porting dired is hard

As of early July, 1998, I have now adapted 18 of my software packages to use GNU autoconf and autoheader to generate a configure script that can be run on any UNIX or POSIX system to examine the environment, set various flags in config.h, and produce a customized Makefile from

When this process is successful, it is of enormous value to end users, because installation becomes a trivial one-line command. However, it is a painful process for software developers, and each package adaptation has taken me longer than I expected: for dired, my labors stretched over four long days, and involved more than a thousand builds on the systems listed above. The resulting script, at 521 lines, is almost twice as long as any of the others that I've written so far; the others range from 54 to 281 lines, with an average of 132 lines. Fortunately, very little of this labor is specific to dired: I can use much of for the next package that I adapt to GNU-style configuration.

Despite the fact that the C programming language has had American and international standards since December 14, 1989, and the draft of the C Standard was stable for at least two years before that, many vendors continue to use non-standard extensions in their header files, making compilation with a strict Standard C compiler, like the excellent lcc compiler, impossible.

There are several reasons why dired so hard to port to new architectures, reflecting the sorry divergences of almost 30 years of UNIX development, vendors' differing attempts to deal with the divergences, and frequently, careless coding and inadequate testing by vendor programming staff. The points in the list below follow the tests in approximately; those 500+ lines of tests expand into 4100+ lines of Bourne shell script to implement them. For comparison, the dired source code amounts to about 7700 lines of C (also compilable with C++).


dired has not yet been ported to the IBM PC DOS platform.

Sample build output for UNIX

Here is a log of a successful build on Sun Solaris 2.6 using the native C++ compiler, CC:

% env CC=cc ./configure && make all check install
creating cache ./config.cache
checking whether make sets ${MAKE}... yes
checking for gcc... cc
checking whether the C compiler (cc  ) works... yes
checking whether the C compiler (cc  ) is a cross-compiler... no
checking whether we are using GNU C... no
checking for a BSD compatible install... /usr/local/bin/install -c
checking whether ln -s works... yes
checking for col... col -x -b
checking for gawk... gawk
checking for chmod... chmod
checking for checksum... checksum
checking for rcp... rcp
checking for cmp... cmp
checking for deroff... deroff
checking for diff... diff
checking for distill... distill
checking for strip... strip
checking for less... /usr/local/bin/less
checking for dw... dw
checking for geqn... geqn
checking for gzip... gzip
checking for ispell... ispell
checking for ln... ln
checking for lpr... lpr
checking for ls... ls
checking for man2html... man2html
checking for mkdir... mkdir
checking for mv... mv
checking for groff... groff
checking for rm... rm
checking for rmdir... rmdir
checking for sed... sed
checking for shar... shar
checking for sort... sort
checking for spell... spell
checking for strip... (cached) strip
checking for gnutar... no
checking for gtar... no
checking for tar... tar
checking for gtbl... gtbl
checking for tr... tr
checking for tex... /usr/local/lib/tex
checking for touch... touch
checking for unzip... unzip
checking for zip... zip
checking for zoo... zoo
checking for Standard C/C++ function declarations... yes
checking how to run the C preprocessor... cc -E
checking for ANSI C header files... yes
checking for assert.h... yes
checking for config.h... no
checking for ctype.h... yes
checking for curses.h... yes
checking for dirent.h... yes
checking for errno.h... yes
checking for fcntl.h... yes
checking for grp.h... yes
checking for limits.h... yes
checking for memory.h... yes
checking for pwd.h... yes
checking for re_comp.h... yes
checking for signal.h... yes
checking for sgtty.h... yes
checking for stdio.h... yes
checking for stdlib.h... yes
checking for string.h... yes
checking for sys/43ioctl.h... no
checking for sys/dir.h... no
checking for sys/ioctl.h... yes
checking for sys/mkdev.h... yes
checking for sys/param.h... yes
checking for sys/stat.h... yes
checking for sys/sysmacros.h... yes
checking for sys/types.h... yes
checking for sys/wait.h... yes
checking for term.h... yes
checking for termio.h... yes
checking for termios.h... yes
checking for time.h... yes
checking for unistd.h... yes
checking return type of signal handlers... void
checking for SIG_PF typedef... no
checking for re_comp() prototype... yes
checking for memset() prototype... yes
checking for tgoto() prototype... no
checking for tgetent() prototype... yes
checking for tgetnum() prototype... yes
checking for tgetstr() prototype... yes
checking for tputs() function final argument type... char
checking for tputs() prototype... yes
checking for ioctl() prototype... yes
checking whether sys/types.h defines makedev... no
checking for sys/mkdev.h... (cached) yes
checking for tcgetattr() prototype... no
checking for strchr() prototype... no
checking for strcpy() prototype... no
checking for strncpy() prototype... no
checking for strrchr() prototype... no
checking for strcat() prototype... no
checking if _ALL_SOURCE needed to expose S_IREAD in <sys/stat.h>... no
checking if _HPUX_SOURCE needed to expose S_IREAD in <sys/stat.h>... no
checking if _XOPEN_SOURCE needed to expose S_IFMT in <sys/stat.h>... no
checking for Standard C/C++ prototype support... yes
checking for working const... yes
checking for size_t... yes
checking for atoi... yes
checking for isatty... yes
checking for getgrgid... yes
checking for getpwuid... yes
checking for opendir... yes
checking for remove... yes
checking for unlink... yes
checking if -lcurses available... yes
checking for argument type of ctime()... const time_t *
checking for struct stat... yes
checking if _POSIX_SOURCE needed for struct dirent... no
checking if -posix needed... no
updating cache ./config.cache
creating ./config.status
creating Makefile
creating config.h
cc  -DV4P2 -DHAVE_CONFIG_H  -I. -DDIREDFILE=\"/usr/local/bin/dired\" -DHELPFILE=\"/usr/local/bin/dired.hlp\" -DMAXFILES=10240 -DMOREPGM=\"/usr/local/bin/less\" -c dired.c
cc  -DV4P2 -DHAVE_CONFIG_H  -I. -c color.c
cc  -DV4P2 -DHAVE_CONFIG_H  -I. -c cshsystem.c
cc  -DV4P2 -DHAVE_CONFIG_H  -I. -c regexpr.c
"regexpr.c", line 1383: warning: statement not reached
cc  -DV4P2 -DHAVE_CONFIG_H  -I. -o dired dired.o color.o cshsystem.o regexpr.o -lcurses
There is no validation suite for must run it manually
rm -f /usr/local/bin/dired /usr/local/bin/dired-4.00 /usr/local/bin/dired.hlp
rcp dired /usr/local/bin/dired
ln /usr/local/bin/dired /usr/local/bin/dired-4.00
strip /usr/local/bin/dired
chmod 755 /usr/local/bin/dired
rcp dired.hlp /usr/local/bin/dired.hlp
chmod 644 /usr/local/bin/dired.hlp
rm -f /usr/local/man/man1/../cat1/dired.1
rm -f /usr/local/man/man1/dired.1
rm -f /usr/local/man/man1/../cat1/dired.1
sed -e "s@dired@dired@g" -e "s@DIRED@`echo dired | tr a-z A-Z`@g" -e "s@dired-x@dired-x@g" -e "s@<STRONG>more</STRONG>[(]1[)]@<STRONG>/usr/local/bin/less</STRONG>@" -e "s@[.]BR more [(]1[)]@.B /usr/local/bin/less@" > /usr/local/man/man1/dired.1
chmod 644 /usr/local/man/man1/dired.1

Installed files...
-rwxr-xr-x   1 beebe    staff     129128 Jul 10 10:03 /usr/local/bin/dired
-rwxrwxr-x   1 beebe    staff     140832 Jul 10 10:03 /usr/local/bin/dired-4.00
-rw-r--r--   1 beebe    staff      25549 Jul 10 10:03 /usr/local/man/man1/dired.1
== Finally, you may wish to install the HTML form of the dired        ==
== documentation.  Try "make -n install-html" to see if that is       ==
== appropriate for your system.                                       ==