For an encyclopaedic coverage of the subject readers are advised to consult the book Non-Uniform Random Variate Generation by Luc Devroye. It covers every imaginable distribution and provides hundreds of algorithms.
The subject of random variate generation is also reviewed by Knuth, who describes algorithms for all the major distributions.
The Particle Data Group provides a short review of techniques for generating distributions of random numbers in the "Monte Carlo" section of its Annual Review of Particle Physics.
The Review of Particle Physics is available online in postscript and pdf format.