lburg - lcc's code-generator generator


lburg [ option ]... [ [ input ] output ]


lburg reads an lcc-style BURG specification from input and writes a pattern-matching code generator to output. If input is `-' or is omitted, lburg reads the standard input; If output is `-' or is omitted, lburg writes to the standard output.

lburg accepts specifications that conform to the following EBNF grammar. Terminals are enclosed in single quotes or are given in uppercase, all other symbols are nonterminals or English phrases, {X} denotes zero or more instances of X, and [X] denotes an optional X.

spec: `%{' configuration `%}' { dcl } `%%' { rule } [ `%%' C code ] dcl: `%start' nonterm `%term' { ID `=' INT } rule: nonterm `:' tree template [ C expression ] tree: term `(' tree `,' tree `)' term `(' tree `)' term nonterm nonterm: ID template: `"' { any character except double quote } `"'

Specifications are structurally similar to yacc's. Text between `\f(CW%{' and `\f(CW%}' is called the configuration section; there may be several such segments. All are concatenated and copied verbatim into the head of the output. Text after the second `\f(CW%%', if any, is also copied verbatim into the output, at the end.

Specifications consist of declarations, a `\f(CW%%' separator, and rules. Input is line-oriented; each declaration and rule must appear on a separate line, and declarations must begin in column 1. Declarations declare terminals --- the operators in subject trees --- and associate a unique, positive external symbol number with each one. Nonterminals are declared by their presence on the left side of rules. The \f(CW%start declaration optionally declares a nonterminal as the start symbol. In the grammar above, \f(CWterm and \f(CWnonterm denote identifiers that are terminals and nonterminals.

Rules define tree patterns in a fully parenthesized prefix form. Every nonterminal denotes a tree. Each operator has a fixed arity, which is inferred from the rules in which it is used. A chain rule is a rule whose pattern is another nonterminal. If no start symbol is declared, the nonterminal defined by the first rule is used.

Each rule ends with an expression that computes the cost of matching that rule; omitted costs default to zero. Costs of chain rules must be constants.

The configuration section configures the output for the trees being parsed and the client's environment. As shown, this section must define \f(CWNODEPTR_TYPE to be a visible typedef symbol for a pointer to a node in the subject tree. The labeller invokes \f(CWOP_LABEL(p), \f(CWLEFT\_CHILD(p), and \f(CWRIGHT\_CHILD(p) to read the operator and children from the node pointed to by \f(CWp. If the configuration section defines these operations as macros, they are implemented in-line; otherwise, they must be implemented as functions.

The matcher computes and stores a single integral state in each node of the subject tree. The configuration section must define a macro \f(CWSTATE_LABEL(p) to access the state field of the node pointed to by \f(CWp. It must be large enough to hold a pointer, and a macro is required because it is used as an lvalue.



Use prefix as the disambiquating prefix for visible names and fields. The default is `\f(CW_'.
Arrange for

    void _trace(NODEPTR_TYPE p, int eruleno,
                    int cost, int bestcost);

to be called at each successful match. \f(CWp identifies the node and \f(CWeruleno identifies the matching rule; the rules are numbered beginning at 1 in the order they appear in the input. \f(CWcost is the cost of the match and \f(CWbestcost is the cost of the best previous match. The current match wins only if \f(CWcost is less than \f(CWbestcost. 32767 represents the infinite cost of no previous match. \f(CW_trace must be declared in the configuration section.



C. W. Fraser and D. R. Hanson, ARetargetableCCompiler:DesignandImplementation, Benjamin/Cummings, Redwood City, CA, 1995, ISBN 0-8053-1670-1. Chapter 14.

C. W. Fraser, D. R. Hanson and T. A. Proebsting, `Engineering a simple, efficient code generator generator,' ACM Letters on Programming Languages and Systems 1, 3 (Sep. 1992), 213-226.


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