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Copyright (C) 1994 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission notice may be stated in a translation approved by the Foundation.


First of all, this manual is incomplete. The stty section, in particular, needs substantial reorganization and additional explanatory text before it will be up to the standard of other GNU manuals. Explanatory text in general is lacking; the manual presently assumes you pretty much know what to do, and just need to be reminded of how. Thus, if you are interested, please get involved in improving this manual. The entire GNU community will benefit.

Some of these programs are useful only when writing shell scripts; utilities like these are, in fact, the "language" of shell scripts (to a great extent). Others are occasionally useful interactively.

The GNU shell utilities are mostly compatible with the POSIX.2 standard.

Please report bugs to `bug-gnu-utils@prep.ai.mit.edu'. Remember to include the version number, machine architecture, input files, and any other information needed to reproduce the bug. See section `Bugs' in GNU CC.

This manual is based on the Unix man pages in the distribution, which were originally written by David MacKenzie and updated by Jim Meyering. Pinard did the initial conversion to Texinfo format. Karl Berry did the indexing, some reorganization, and editing of the results. Richard Stallman contributed his usual invaluable insights to the overall process.

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