Note that mh-e is supported with MH 6 and either GNU Emacs 18 or GNU Emacs 19. Reportedly, large parts of it work with MH 5 and also with Lucid/XEmacs and Epoch, but there are no guarantees. It is also distributed with Lucid/XEmacs, as well as with MH itself.


The keys mentioned in these chapters refer to the default key bindings. If you've changed the bindings, refer to the command summaries at the beginning of each major section in section Using mh-e, for a mapping between default key bindings and function names.


This is emphasized because pressing ESC twice or holding it down a second too long so that it repeats gives you an error message.


You wouldn't ordinarily do this.


A mode changes Emacs to make it easier to edit a particular type of text.


If you're running Emacs under the X Window System, then you would also see a menubar. I've left out the menubar in all of the example screens.


If you want to see your old mail as well, use M-r to pull all your messages into mh-e. Or, give a prefix argument to mh-rmail so it will prompt you for folder to visit like M-f (for example, C-u M-x mh-rmail RET bob RET). Both M-r and M-f are described in section Organizing Your Mail with Folders.


You can call them directly from Emacs if you're running the X Window System: type M-! xterm -e mhn message-number. You can leave out the xterm -e if you use mhn -list or mhn -store.


For you Emacs wizards, this is implemented as an Emacs minor mode.


I highly recommend that you use a draft folder so that you can edit several drafts in parallel. To do so, create a folder (e.g., `+drafts'), and add a profile component called `Draft-Folder:' which contains `+drafts' (see mh-profile(5)).


If you'd rather have the header cleaned up, use C-u r instead of r when replying (see section Replying to Mail).


This RFC (Request For Comments) is available via the URL


The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual may be available online in the Info system by typing C-h i m Emacs Lisp RET. If not, you can order a printed manual, which has the desirable side-effect of helping to support the Free Software Foundation which made all this great software available. You can find an order form by running C-h C-d, or you can request an order form from


Stephen Gildea's favorite binding is (global-set-key "\C-cr" 'mh-rmail).


To see which options your copy of MH was compiled with, use M-x mh-version (section Miscellaneous Commands).


Supercite is an example of a full-bodied, full-featured citation package. It is in Emacs versions 19.15 and later, and its URL is


After reading this article, I questioned Brian about his version of MHE, and received some great ideas for improving mh-e such as a dired-like method of selecting folders; and removing the prompting when sending mail, filling in the blanks in the draft buffer instead. I passed them on to Stephen Gildea, the current maintainer, and he was excited about the ideas as well. Perhaps one day, mh-e will again resemble MHE, although none of these ideas are manifest in Version 5.0.